Quarterly Report: Analysis On Terrorism Trends and Developments During The Covid-19 Global Pandemic

This report examines the latest events and developments on terror-related incidents that occurred across the globe between October and December 2020. Military actions in Iraq and Syria have reduced the impact of Daesh-related terrorism around the world. Participating governments continue to target prominent violent groups such as Daesh, Taliban and AQ. The COVID-19 health crisis has led to a decline in violence and remain at low levels. Lockdowns in Indonesia have caused pro-Daesh militants to suffer from income loss. Other groups such as Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) and East Indonesia Mujahideen (MIT) remain resilient. Meanwhile, the Philippines security forces continue to target militant groups in the Southern Philippines. Groups like Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF) and Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) have lost ground, but they are still able to evolve and relaunch themselves.

News Roundup, Week of 11 December, 2020

This week, more militants in the Philippines gave themselves up to the Philippines security forces, while a Saudi national who allegedly acted as a facilitator for both Daesh and the Bangsomoro Islamic Fighters (BIFF) was arrested. Meanwhile in Afghanistan, the Afghan army managed to impede an attack on yet another military in Ghazni. Air strike operations were carried out in Iraq and Egypt to target Daesh militants. Daesh claimed responsibility for the attack on two oil wells in Iraq.


Thirty-nine members of Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) surrendered to the Philippines security forces in Tawi-Tawi and Sulu in the Philippines. Three of them were identified as Alsadi Hanain, Benaser Pae and Ugali Alimudin Alsadi who were based in Tawi-Tawi. Hanain, a follower of the ASG’s emir Hatib Hadjan Sawadjaan, was involved in high-profile kidnappings and killings of foreign hostages. Thirty-six other members were followers of a senior member of ASG, Alhabsi Misaya, who was killed in a clash with the security forces in Sulu in 2017.

Meanwhile, a 47-year old Saudi national, Adel Sulaiman Alsuhibani, was arrested by the Philippines authorities in Cotabato City, Maguindanao. Alsuhibani was suspected for bringing in West Asia Daesh members into the country and acting as a facilitator for both Daesh and the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters. His Filipina wife, 36-year old Norhaya Silongan Lumanggal, was also taken into custody. While searching their home, the police discovered a homemade explosive along with travel documents and several passports.


The Taliban orchestrated yet another attack on another military base this month in the Andar District in Ghazni, Afghanistan. However, their planned suicide attack was foiled when the suicide bomber was shot by a sniper as he drove into the base. Two officers were killed while three other were wounded during the attack. This was the second attack that was successfully hampered by the Afghan army this week. Just the day before, the Afghan army thwarted a Taliban attack on a security checkpoint in Uruzgan. 


Five Daesh members were killed during a military air strike carried out by the US-led international coalition in Salahuddin, Iraq. The air raid had also completely destroyed their hideout. The success of this mission was the result of a joint cooperation with Iraq’s National Intelligence Service in targeting the location in Tal Thahab. Daesh militants frequently carry out attacks in the area known as the “Triangle of Death” between Kirkuk, Salajuddin and Diyala.

Iyad Mansour Al-Nimrawi, a Daesh commander, was killed during a security operation that was carried out by the Popular Mobilisation Unit (Hashd al Sha’abi) in Baiji District, Iraq. Al-Nimrawi was the senior logistics officer for the group who was responsible for data transfer for the Daesh network and providing them with logistics assistance including transportations.

In Kirkuk Province in Iraq, two Khabbaz oil wells were set ablaze by explosives but no loss of lives were reported. The technical team managed to isolate the burning wells before they could affect overall production that can generate over 25,000 barrels per day. In a statement shared on Telegram, Daesh claimed responsibility for the attack but provided no evidence to support their claim.

Meanwhile, 40 terrorists were killed in a clash with the Egyptian force in North Sinai, Egypt. Nine soldiers and two officers were also killed. The Egyptian air force destroyed 437 terrorist hideouts, during which 25 militants were killed. Another 15 terrorists were killed in a separate operation. The Egyptian forces destroyed 6 four-wheel drives, 32 motorcycles, 5 tunnels, dismantled 159 explosive devices, found weapons and wireless communications and arrested more than 20 suspected terrorists.

Global Decline In Terrorist Attacks Masks Rise In Right-Wing Extremism

The Institute of Economic Peace (IEP) recently compiled and published the 2020 Global Terrorism Index, using data from the Global Terrorism Database (GTD) to study terrorism’s impact on 163 countries. The GTD dataset, maintained by the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START) at the University of Maryland, includes over 170,000 terrorist incidents from 1970 to 2019. The top 10 countries most affected by terrorism are Afghanistan, Iraq, Nigeria, Syria, Somalia, Yemen, Pakistan, India, the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Philippines. However, according to the Index, deaths from terrorism have fallen globally for five straight years – with 2019 showing a 15 percent decrease from the previous year, even as instances of far-right terrorism have risen in many western countries. This decrease is attributed to the decline in the level of violence in the Middle East and the disintegration of Daesh in Iraq and Syria. The four groups primarily responsible for the most deaths in 2019 were the Taliban, Boko Haram, Daesh and Al-Shabaab.

The collapse of Daesh’s caliphate in 2017 and ongoing counter-terrorism operations in Iraq and Syria have reduced the impact of Daesh-related terrorism around the world. As a result, the number of fatalities caused by Daesh are at the lowest since 2013. Even so, countries are still struggling with the repatriation of their nationals who went to Syria to become foreign terrorist fighters (FTF) for Daesh. At the same time, IEP’s analysis found that terrorism-related deaths have decreased in most regions like the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Some regions experienced serious increases in terrorist activity such as sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Sri Lanka, for instance, saw a large increase in deaths from terrorist violence due to the Easter Sunday bombing attack perpetrated by Daesh-linked perpetrators which saw 266 people dead. Nevertheless, radical Islamist-related terrorism is declining globally.

New trends are emerging with the rise of far-right and white supremacist movements. Several western countries are facing a serious increase of far-right terrorism, by as much as 250% in the last five years. There were 49 far-right terrorist incidents with 89 deaths in 2019 – of which the Christchurch mosque attack in New Zealand accounted for 51. While much of Western counter-terrorism efforts are focused on jihadi terrorism, far-right terrorism is proving to be a growing threat in recent years due to the shifting political landscape, with increased polarisation and divisive populist movements encouraging the use of violence to achieve political ends.

Although terrorism-related deaths have declined in Afghanistan, this remains the country most affected by terrorism, followed by Iraq, Nigeria, Syria and Somalia. The Afghan economy is severely affected by terrorism. The imminent withdrawal of US troops suggests that the threat of violent Islamist terrorism will not subside. Multiple ongoing insurgencies fuel the terror. The growing presence of Daesh’s chapter in the Khorasan – the Islamic State Khorasan Province (ISKP) – looms over the peace talks between the Afghan government and Taliban representatives in Qatar. As Daesh Central struggles to recover itself in Iraq and Syria, many of its fighters have decamped to join ISKP. ISKP has been responsible for most of the terrorism-related fatalities in Afghanistan, India and Pakistan, including an attack in Kabul University this year which left 22 students dead and 22 others wounded.

According to IEP’s findings, Malaysia ranked 76 out of 163 nations listed in order of those most affected by terrorism, while the Philippines, Thailand, Myanmar and Indonesia ranked 10, 21, 25 and 37 respectively. Religious extremism remains the main driver of political violence in the Philippines and Indonesia. The three deadliest terrorist groups in the Philippines are the communist New People’s Army (NPA), Daesh, and the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG). ASG, which is also recognised as the Islamic State of East Asia Province, was responsible for this year’s deadliest incident in the Philippines which saw twin bomb attacks detonated in Jolo, in the southern Philippines province of Sulu, killing 14 people and wounding 25 others. Even as the Philippines security forces are actively carrying out anti-terrorism operations throughout the south of the country, Daesh-affiliated radical groups remain active in recruiting and training new members to carry out more operations and launch attacks.

The Covid-19 pandemic was expected to provide terrorist groups with an opportunity to regroup, plot attacks, drive narratives that encourage divisiveness, and increase recruitment. However, the pandemic has also proven to be disruptive and presented operational challenges. For instance, lockdowns in Indonesia have caused Daesh supporters and sympathisers to suffer a severe loss of income, which resulted in declining revenues for pro-Daesh cells in the country, making it difficult to carry out operations. The lockdowns have also reduced crowds, making them less attractive as attack targets.

But some primary drivers of terrorist activity remain unchanged. Grievance and weak rule of law are associated with terrorism across the board, with growing socio-economic and political instability a reflection of social disenfranchisement and exclusion. Therefore, countries engaging in counter-terrorism and counter-radicalisation efforts must still consider improving social and economic conditions to diminish motivations for joining any violent political movements. A key challenge for developing countries remains addressing existing schisms in the communal fault lines concerning racial or religious tensions, and tackling corruption, all of which fuel sympathies for terrorist movements.

News Roundup, Week of 4 December, 2020

As Afghan government and Taliban representatives resumed their peace negotiations in Qatar, violence continue to unfold in Afghanistan. Meanwhile, in the wake of a deadly attack unleashed by the East Indonesian Mujahideen (MIT) in Sulawesi, Indonesia is on alert.


Earlier this week, the MIT orchestrated an attack against a village in the sleepy Lembantongoa hamlet in Sigi, Central Sulawesi, which caused hundreds of residents to flee their homes. The pro-Daesh militants torched homes and killed four farmers who were members of the local Salvation Army Church – one of them was decapitated while another was immolated. This latest episode was one of the most violent incidents ever launched by the MIT under Ali Kalora’s leadership. The presence of MIT in Sigi may also be an indication that MIT is moving out of Palu and Poso areas due to the active counterterrorism operations conducted in the two areas. In response to the spate of MIT violence in the region, the Indonesian National Armed Forces (TNI) sent a reinforcement of 30 people to Poso to aid the ongoing counterterrorism operation, Operation Tinombala.


Meanwhile, in Afghanistan, a suicide car bomber struck an army commando base in Ghazni, killing 31 people and injuring 24 others. All of them were security personnels. The attacker, who was later identified as Asmatullah Hamid, had detonated a Humvee filled with explosives. The attack was believed to have been masterminded by Hamza Waziristani, a Taliban militant. That very evening, the Afghanistan army succeeded in hunting and killing Waziristani in eastern Ghazni. Seven other terrorists were also killed during the air strike. In a separate incident on the same day, another suicide bomber detonated a vehicle in Qalat in the southern region of Zabul, targeting the provincial council chief, Atta Jan Haqbayan, who survived the attempted assassination.

News Roundup, Week of 27 November, 2020

This week saw Philippines security forces continue to sustain pressure on militants in the Southern Philippines. Meanwhile, Singaporean authorities made several terrorism-related arrests under the country’s Internal Security Act (ISA). Meanwhile, Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) announced their new commander, five months after the death of their previous emir.


There were two separate clashes involving the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) and the Philippines’ Marine Battalion Landing Team 1 in the Barangay Area, Sulu earlier this week. The first gun battle resulted in the death of Hatib Munap Binda, an ASG subleader who operated in Kalingalan Caluang and Panamo. Binda who joined ASG in 2002 was responsible for a series of kidnap-for-ransom (KSR) activities in the area. In a separate location, a second confrontation ensued between the security forces with another group led by Sansibar Bensio, also an ASG subleader active in KFR based in Panamao. During this encounter, Sansibar’s father Bensio Barahama was killed. Meanwhile in Singapore, 26-year old Bangladeshi labourer, Ahmed Faysal, was arrested under the Internal Security Act (ISA) for his involvement in terrorism activities. Faysal, who arrived in Singapore in 2017, became acquainted with Daesh materials online in 2018, which he translated into Bengali for dissemination. Faysal had planned to go to Syria to join Daesh. In 2019, Faysal had expressed his support for Hayat Tahrir al-Syam and donated money to the group. He also expressed his support for Al-Qaeda and Al-Shabaab. 


Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) released a video announcement of their new chief, Abu Ubaidan Yusef al-Annabi to replace their first leader, Abdelmalek Droukdel (alias Abu Musab Abdel Wadoud). Droukdel was killed in a clash with the French forces during a counterterrorism operation by last June. Al-Annabi, who came from Annaba, Algeria, is AQIM’s senior member. He once led AQIM’s Council of Notables since 2010 and played a key role in AQ’s messaging. In July 2011, Al-Annabi was the first AQIM member to pledge bay’ah to Ayman al-Zawahiri soon after Osama bin Laden’s death. Al-Annabi came to prominence in 2013 over his call to Muslims to revolt against French interference in Mali. Al-Annabi’s appointment signals AQIM’s continued interest in driving out French influence and interests from Algeria, Maghreb, Sahara, Sahel, Mali, Libya, and Tunisia. Although Al-Annabi has a strong influence amongst AQIM followers, he will be facing various challenges. AQIM’s position in Algeria has weakened as the group has to compete with other armed movements, including Daesh. AQIM’s wing, namely Jama’a Nusrat aul-Islam wa al-Muslimin (JNIM), recently clashed with Daesh network. This appointment of AQIM’s new leader is significant to AQIM in defending its position in Algeria through JNIM.

News Roundup, Week of 20 November, 2020

In a startling report, The New York Times revealed that intelligence officials have confirmed that Al-Qaeda’s deputy Emir, Abdullah Ahmed Abdulla aka Abu Muhammad al-Masri, had been slain in Iran on 7 August 2020 – exactly twenty-two years after he allegedly orchestrated the 1998 bombings of the US embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Al-Masri, who was anticipated to replace Ayman al-Zawahiri, Al-Qaeda’s reclusive chief, was driving along the streets of Tehran with his daughter, Maryam, next to him when he was gunned down by two assassins riding on a motorcycle. Various reports suggested that Maryam, who was the widow to Osama bin Laden’s late son Hamza bin Laden, was no mere unfortunate casualty in the shooting but was also herself a target of high value because she was being groomed for a leadership role in al-Qaeda, and intelligence suggested she was involved in operational planning. The assassination was kept a secret until recently. Simultaneously, credible news are circulating that al-Zawahiri himself has passed away last month from natural causes in his domicile in an undisclosed location. Al-Zawahiri, who stepped up to lead Al-Qaeda after bin Laden’s death in 2011, was reportedly to have been suffering from ailing health. While these claims have been unverified, nevertheless they pose some serious questions about the organisation’s future. With Al-Masri’s untimely demise, their deaths could potentially underscore a serious blow to Al-Qaeda and their operations. The last remaining old guard, Saif Al-Adel who is reportedly living in Iran, is rumoured to be next in line. 


Two members of the East Indonesia Mujahideen (MIT) were shot dead by Indonesian counterterrorism unit Densus 88 during Operation Tinombala, a joint police and military task force, in West Desa Bolano, Palu in Sulawesi. Both suspects were wanted for their involvement in terrorist activities in Sulawesi. Meanwhile, in the Philippines, 19-year old Faharuden Hadji Sapilin (aka Abu Abbas), a member of Dawlah Islamiyah (DI), had surrendered himself to the 5th Infantry Battalion in Lanao del Sur, Southern Philippines. Previously, Faharuden had been involved in clashes with the security forces in Pagayawan, Marogong dan Tubaran di Lanao del Sur. Separately, in Parang Town, Maguindanao, three members of the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF) had surrendered to the security forces as well. They were part of BIFF’s cell, Kagi Karialan, and had acted as couriers for the BIFF network operating in Maguindanao.


Earlier this week, US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announced that the East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM) has been removed from the country’s terror list as there is no credible evidence to support that ETIM poses a threat, a move welcomed by the The Uighur Human Rights Project based in Washington, DC. ETIM was listed in UN’s list of global terrorist organisation in 2002 and US’ terror list in 2004 during the George W. Bush administration following the War on Terror campaign at the time.

News Roundup, Week of 13 November, 2020

Against the backdrop of escalating violence in Afghanistan due to the failed peace talks in Qatar between the Afghan government and the Taliban, Democrat Joe Biden has won the 2020 United States (US) election to become the 46th US President after an intense week of vote tallying as the country grapples with an ever-rising Covid-19 death toll. President Donald Trump has refused to concede and is seeking to challenge the results. Undaunted, President-elect Biden is pushing forward with transition despite the incumbent President Trump blocking government officials from cooperating with Biden’s team and preventing him from accessing State Department resources and communiqués with foreign governments. Earlier this week, a defiant Biden unveiled his Covid-19 response task force that promises to harness the power of science to battle the pandemic. On the global stage, the Biden administration can be expected to reestablish US credibility and rebuild trust with allied countries. Afghan officials are hopeful that Biden would review the Afghan peace process and adopt a tougher stance on the militant group to “encourage” them to negotiate fairly and reduce their violence.


Meanwhile, earlier this week, Indonesia’s counterterrorism unit Densus 88 arrested seven terror suspects at separate locations in a series of raids. Five of them are members of the Al-Qaeda-linked Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) cell, while the remaining two are suspected members of the Daesh-linked Jamaah Ansharut Daulah (JAD). Among those who were arrested was Ahmad Zaini (alias Ahyar/Epson), a suspected leader of JI. While these arrests suggest that JI and JAD members have been active in pursuing funds and arming themselves, however Indonesian government’s strict Covid-19 lockdown has also posed some restrictions on their day jobs and activities. A recent research by Indonesian NGO, PAKAR, these lockdowns have caused IS supporters and sympathisers to suffer from a severe loss of income. In turn, this has resulted in declining revenues for Jamaah Ansharud Daulah, Jamaah Ansharul Khilafah, and other pro-Daesh cells in Indonesia. This lack of funds have impacted these organisations’ capabilities. Previously, many experts predicted that pro-Daesh groups would attempt to exploit Covid-19 to regroup and plot attacks against their enemies, but as the year goes by, it appears that Daesh adherents are also people who are beleaguered by the challenges of the “new normal” imposed by the pandemic.


Two prominent Afghanistan journalists were killed within one week apart from each other. Former TV presenter Yama Siawash and two others were killed when a bomb attached to his car exploded near his home in Kabul earlier this week. Days later, radio journalist Elyas Dayee was killed in a targeted bomb blast in Helmand. No one has claimed responsibility for both attacks, though it is suspected that the Taliban-linked Haqqani Network was responsible for Siawash’s death. Meanwhile, four people were killed and 40 others were injured when a vehicle borne improvised explosive device (VBIED) targeting a police headquarters in Maiwand district, south of Kandahar province exploded. Separately, Mohammad Hanif, a key member of the Al-Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent (AQIS) was killed in a security operation organised by Afghanistan’s National Directorate of Security in the Bakwa district of Farah province located in the western part of the country. Hanif, who was originally from Karachi, Pakistan, was a bomb-maker for the group. Initially, Hanif was a Taliban member who trained Taliban fighters in building bombs and IEDs before switching membership and joined Al-Qaeda in 2010. Hanif was also the vice Emir and a close aide to Asim Omar who led AQIS before he was killed in 2019 during a joint operation by the US and Afghanistan. Hanif’s death occurred just two weeks after another high-ranking AQ member, Abu Muhsin al-Masri, was killed by security operatives. While his passing would suggest that AQ is experiencing a strategic loss that may impact their leadership, nevertheless AQ as a group can be expected to remain resilient.


A group of militants attacked an Iraqi lookout point maintained by the Hashd al-Shaabi in Al-Radwaniyah, southwest of Baghdad earlier this week. The attackers used grenades and automatic weapons, which left eleven people dead and eight wounded during the clash. This incident was reportedly the deadliest attack on Iraqi security forces in months. Since Daesh’s defeat by the end of 2017, the US-led military coalition has reduced their presence in the country. Nevertheless, the group still poses a significant threat in the area. Daesh sleeper cells have been waging guerilla-style attacks on local military and security forces. Meanwhile, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, three people were wounded when an improvised explosive device (IED) exploded during a World War I remembrance ceremony at the city’s non-Muslim cemetery. The French consulate had organised the commemoration event, which was attended by staffers from foreign diplomatic missions, including Greece, Italy, the United Kingdom and the US. The attack occurred at a time when tension between France and a number of Islamic countries is at an all-time high, stemming from French President Emmanuel Macron’s defiant defense of Charlie Hebdo’s republication of Prophet Muhammad’s SAW’s offensive caricatures. Daesh has claimed responsibility for both of these attacks. Given that the verdict from the Charlie Hebdo 2015 trial will be reached sometime this month, there are some concerns that more violence can be anticipated in the horizon from both Islamist and the Far Right supporters who are looking to exploit the current political friction.


Oil and gas rich-Cabo Delgado province in northern Mozambique witnessed a particularly gruesome week when the Daesh-linked Ahlu Sunnah Wal Jamaah (ASWJ) attacked Nanjaba Village and Muatide Village. The militants burned down homes and abducted women and children. The insurgents also herded more than 50 people to a football pitch in Muatide Village before beheading and dismembering them. Authorities only learned about the massacre accounts of individuals who discovered the scattered remains. In 2019, Daesh declared that ASWJ was part of its branch of the Central Africa Province (ISCAP), which also includes the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) jihadists. ASWJ has been responsible for most of the increasing aggression and instability in Mozambique, and has been escalating violence the area in recent months.

Hizbut Tahrir: Perspektif Ancaman Dan Implikasi Ekstremisme Dan Radikalisme Terkini

Artikel ini pernah diterbitkan oleh pengarang sebelum ini dan diolah semula untuk bacaan umum. Disediakan oleh Dr Zul –  Terrorism Analyst

Hizbut Tahrir (HT) ataupun dikenali dengan gelaran the Islamic Party of Liberation merupakan sebuah gerakan politik yang ditubuhkan pada 1953 di Al Quds (Baitul Maqdis), Palestin. Pengasasnya adalah Syeikh Taqiyuddin An-Nabhani (1909-1977). Gerakan ini bergerak aktif bermula di Jordan dan dunia Arab sekitar 1950’an.  Pemimpin kedua gerakan HT adalah  Al Syeikh Abdul Qadeem Zallum yang memimpin HT sejak 1977 hingga 2003.  Pada ketika ini, gerakan HT dipimpin oleh Syeikh Atha Abu Rusythah dan menjadi jurucakap HT di Jordan sejak tahun 2003.

Gerakan revolusi ini menggunakan Islam sebagai platform politik untuk mengembalikan semula sistem “Khilafah” yang dipimpin oleh seorang khalifah untuk umat Islam sejagat dengan cara mengembangkan dakwah Islam ke seluruh dunia. HT  beranggapan bahawa fahaman sistem demokrasi berperlembagaan yang diamalkan oleh sesebuah negara perlu diganti dan kerajaan boleh dijatuhkan tanpa melalui pilihan raya. Oleh kerana HT menolak sistem demokrasi, nasionalisme dan sekularisme, ia jelas menunjukkan bahawa pengikut HT memegang kepada fahaman bahawa sistem pilihanraya untuk memilih sesebuah kerajaan adalah satu amalan yang tidak mengikut syariat Islam. Ketika ini, pengikut-pengikut HT tidak terlibat atau dikaitkan dengan aktiviti radikalisme mahupun terorisme kerana mereka ingin menegakkan sebuah Khilafah Islamiyah melalui kaedah dakwah. Namun begitu, HT mempunyai potensi untuk menjadi sebuah organisasi yang terlibat dengan aktiviti ektremisme dan radikalisme berdasarkan ideologi dan perjuangan mereka. Matlamat untuk menegakkan sebuah Khilafah Islamiyah yang diperjuangkan oleh HT adalah sinonim dengan perjuangan Daesh cuma perbezaannya adalah manhaj  atau kaedah bagi mencapai objektif mereka sahaja.

Penubuhan HT juga bertujuan untuk mengajak kaum muslimin kembali ke arah kehidupan Islamik mengikut hukum-hakam syarak yang ditetapkan. Pemimpinnya kelak adalah seorang Khalifah yang diangkat dan dibai’at oleh kaum muslimin untuk ditaati agar menjalankan pemerintahan berdasarkan Kitabullah dan Sunnah Rasul-Nya serta mengembang risalah Islam ke seluruh dunia melalui dakwah dan jihad. Seruan ini mirip sepertimana yang dilakukan oleh Daesh pada tahun 2014 dahulu di mana mereka menyeru agar umat Islam berbaiah dengan Abu Bakar Al Baghdadi sebagai seorang Khalifah kepada sebuah Khilafah Islamiyah.

Pada masa kini, pergerakan HT telahpun berkembang ke Afrika, Mesir, Libya, Sudan, Algeria, Tunisia, Sepanyol, Lubnan, Turki, United Kingdom, Perancis, Jordan, Jerman, Austria, Belanda, Rusia, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kirgistan, Bangladesh, Pakistan, China, Australia, Amerika Syarikat, Indonesia dan Malaysia. Pergerakan ini dilihat lebih dominan di negara-negara Timur Tengah dan Jordan dikenalpasti sebagai pusat utama yang signifikan bagi pergerakan ini berbanding tempat-tempat lain. Setelah banyak negara mengenakan larangan ke atasnya, aktiviti dan pergerakan HT dilakukan secara underground dan rahsia. Di Malaysia, aktiviti dan gerakan HT agak menonjol dibeberapa negeri seperti Selangor dan Johor dan gerakan ini berpusat di Bandar Baru Bangi.

Fatwa Larangan Ke Atas Hizbut Tahrir Di Malaysia

Pergerakan HT di Malaysia telah mula dilihat menjadi ancaman kepada perpaduan umat Islam kerana terdapat beberapa perkara yang menjadi amalan mereka bercanggah dengan pegangan ahli sunnah wal jamaah. Justeru beberapa negeri telah mengeluarkan fatwa bahawa ajaran dan amalan HT adalah diharamkan kerana ia bercanggah dengan aliran dan pegangan umat Islam mainstream. Berikut adalah negeri-negeri yang telah mengharamkan HT di Malaysia:

  • Selangor. Pada 17 Sep 15,Jawatankuasa Fatwa Selangor telah  melarang dan mengharamkan mana-mana orang Islam yang telah berbai’ah atau mengamalkan fahaman dan ajaran Hizbut Tahrir kerana ia bercanggah dengan ajaran Islam sebenar.
  • Pahang.  Mesyuarat Jawatankuasa Perundingan Hukum Syarak Negeri Pahang Bil 1/2009 yang bersidang pada 27 Feb 09 telah membincangkan kedudukan Hizb al-Tahrir di Malaysia dan membuat keputusan bahawa ajaran Hizb al-Tahrir ini tidak sesuai dan haram diamalkan oleh umat Islam di Pahang.
  • Sabah. Majlis Fatwa Negeri Sabah telah mengeluarkan fatwa ke atas 16 ajaran atau fahaman yang menyeleweng daripada akidah Ahli Sunnah Wal Jamaah. Salah satunya adalah larangan ke atas gerakan Hizbut Tahrir.

Matlamat Perjuangan Hizbut Tahrir

Gerakan HT ini dilihat memperjuangkan konsep mengembalikan Khilafah umat Islam untuk tujuan meraih simpati dan pengaruh di kalangan masyarakat Islam di seluruh dunia. Dalam merealisasikan hasrat tersebut, gerakan ini menggunakan beberapa pendekatan perjuangan. Antara intipati perjuangan tersebut adalah:

  • Penubuhan HT adalah bermatlamatkan untuk menubuhkan sebuah negara Islam transnasional merangkumi semua negara Islam di bawah satu Ummah. Dalam erti kata yang mudah HT bercita-cita untuk menegakkan sistem Khilafah di atas muka bumi ini.
  • HT menolak sistem demokrasi, sistem sekular dan ekonomi kapitalis kerana sistem-sistem demikian dikatakan buatan manusia dan tidak Islamik. Ini menjelaskan bahawa pengikut HT memegang aliran Tauhid Hakimiyah iaitu mereka menolak undang-undang buatan manusia serta melabelkan orang yang terlibat dalam proses demokrasi (pilihan raya) sebagai murtad. Fenomena ini menjelaskan bagaimana kumpulan-kumpulan ekstremis di merata pelosok dunia mengamalkan budaya takfiri (mengkafirkan sesama Islam kerana mereka menyertai proses demokrasi dalam sesebuah negara).
  • HT menolak mana-mana sistem yang mempunyai elemen bukan Islam. Bagi HT apa sahaja sistem yang dicedok dari Barat dikira tidak Islamik dan sesiapa sahaja yang mengguna pakai sistem tersebut dikira telah menjadi murtad.
  • Memperjuangkan penegakan sebuah Khilafah Islamiyah untuk mengembalikan umat Islam ke arah kehidupan yang mengikut lunas-lunas Islam dan Undang-Undang Syariah. Perjuangan ini sinonim dengan perjuangan yang sedang dilakukan oleh Daesh.
  • Bersifat supra-nasional (pergerakan secara internasional) dan menolak untuk bergabung dan menyertai mana-mana parti politik di sesebuah negara. Ini menjelaskan kecelaruan HT dalam melaksanakan agenda mereka terutamanya tentang kaedah untuk mereka menegakkan sebuah Khilafah atau Daulah (negara).
  • HT menolak sistem pilihan raya kerana dikatakan ia adalah praktik yang diambil dari amalan negara Barat. Malah lebih buruk lagi mereka melabelkan orang-orang yang terlibat dengan sistem demokrasi dikira telah menjadi murtad.
  • Dipengaruhi sentimen anti-Semitik @ anti-Yahudi dan pada masa yang sama turut menolak pengaruh Barat.

Dalam mencapai hasrat atau objektif mereka, HT telah merangka tiga fasa secara berperingkat seperti berikut:

Hierarki Fasa Gerakan HT

Fasa I adalah proses penyebaran ideologi dan mempengaruhi orang ramai yang melibatkan proses mengenal pasti individu dan golongan terutamanya yang berpengaruh dan mempunyai kuasa (authority) untuk diindoktrinasikan. Fasa II pula adalah mendekatkan diri dan bermesra dengan orang ramai melalui aktiviti serta program yang dirancang dengan bertujuan untuk mendapatkan keyakinan dan tahap sokongan daripada individu dan golongan yang telah dikenalpasti. Fasa III dengan jelas adalah proses mengambil alih kuasa atau pemerintahan dengan mendirikan sebuah Khilafah.

Strategi-strategi tersebut adalah visi dan objektif untuk mewujudkan sebuah institusi merangkumi aspek ketenteraan, pentadbiran dan kerajaan, sosio-ekonomi, sektor awam dan swasta yang turut akan mengikuti panduan Undang-Undang Syariah yang ditetapkan. Namun begitu, berdasarkan fasa-fasa dalam menegakkan sebuah Khilafah Islamiyah yang mereka impikan, HT tidak menunjukkan dengan jelas bagaimanakah kaedah atau manhaj mereka untuk mendapatkan kuasa. Kekaburan ini menjelaskan bahawa perjuangan HT adalah satu perjuangan yang utopia. Mereka tidak mempunyai gagasan politik yang jelas bagaimana sebuah Khilafah Islamiyah itu akan tertegak. Kaedah dakwah yang mereka sarankan juga adalah kabur dan apa yang menakutkan adalah jika ada segelintir pengikut mereka yang tidak sabar dengan manhaj HT sekarang, mereka dikhuatiri akan melibatkan diri dengan aktiviti radikalisme demi untuk mendapatkan kuasa ataupun menyertai kumpulan Daesh yang dilihat sedang memperjuangkan sebuah Khilafah Islamiyah melalui kaedah jihad.

Mengikut HT, belum ada lagi sebuah negara Islam (Dar al-Islam) yang sebenar dibentuk melainkan negara Islam yang masih menerima pengaruh barat yang menyebarkan sistem demokrasi, sekular dan kapitalisme serta pemikiran liberalisme. Negara-negara demikian digelar sebagai Dar al-Harb dan dan menjadi kewajipan kepada umat Islam untuk mengubahnya. Dalam konteks Malaysia, secara tidak langsung  HT menganggap bahawa Malaysia bukan merupakan sebuah negara Islam dan atas sebab itu mereka bercita-cita hendak menegakkan sebuah Khilafah.

Gerakan HT tidak menolak aspek teknologi yang mana ini mungkin dilihat penting dalam mengembangkan pengaruhnya. Walau bagaimanapun, HT menolak tamadun barat kerana dianggap menyimpang daripada kehidupan masyarakat Islam dan harus diganti dengan kehidupan sebenar Ummah. Disini juga timbul sikap hipokrit kumpulan ini dimana merreka mengambil sebahagian dari kebaikan Barat manakala menolak sebahagian praktik yang lain. Walaupun HT tidak menggunakan kekerasan dan keganasan (buat masa ini), HT masih mementingkan gesaan berjihad sebagai jalan terakhir untuk mencapai matlamat. Mereka juga bermatlamat untuk menjatuhkan kerajaan sedia ada yang dianggap sekular melalui ketenteraan. Justeru, dapat disimpulkan bahawa HT bersedia untuk menggunakan kaedah kekerasan sekiranya matlamat perjuangan mereka tidak tercapai melalui kaedah dakwah.

Sumber Kewangan

Gerakan HT mempunyai pelbagai saluran untuk mengumpul dan mendapatkan kewangannya. Seperti mana-mana organisasi lain, sumber kewangan ini adalah untuk pembiayaan aktiviti termasuk pengurusan lain-lain aspek pentadbiran. Dana bagi gerakan ini dikumpulkan melalui sumbangan peribadi daripada ahli-ahli dan individu-individu tertentu terutamanya dari Arab Saudi serta negara-negara Teluk yang berpegang kepada agenda ‘pan-Islam’ yang lazimnya dikaburi dengan alasan untuk pertubuhan amal Islam. Terdapat sumber yang menjelaskan bahawa ahli-ahli HT membayar ‘infak’ iaitu sebanyak 10 peratus daripada sumber pendapatan bulanan mereka kepada organisasi itu. Selain itu, kutipan derma juga dilaksanakan di lokasi-lokasi yang menjadi tumpuan orang Islam selain masjid. Pendekatan-pendekatan ini sememangnya menjadi amalan kumpulan tersebut secara global.


Organisasi ini dianggarkan mempunyai pengikut di hampir 50 buah negara. Keanggotaannya secara global mampu melangkaui satu juta pengikut dan jumlah ini juga jauh lebih besar daripada keanggotaan Daesh. Ibu pejabat HT bertapak dengan sokongan kuat di United Kingdom. Keahlian yang tertinggi adalah dari Uzbekistan dengan jumlah yang mampu mencapai 60,000 orang. Kyrgyzstan mempunyai 3000 ahli dan Tajikistan pula mempunyai 5000 ahli. Walau bagaimanapun, sehingga kini masih belum ada jumlah yang tepat untuk mengesahkan ahli sebenar HT.

Struktur Daulah Khilafah

HT cuba menghidupkan semula zaman Khilafah yang pernah menjadi zaman kegemilangan umat Islam pada suatu ketika dahulu. Namun, sepertimana yang telah banyak diperjelaskan oleh cendekiawan Islam kontemporari, perintah untuk menegakkan sebuah Khilafah Islamiyah itu sebenarnya tidak ada di dalam Al Quran. Jika perintah itu adalah wajib, maka semua umat Islam yang tidak berjuang menegakkan sebuah Khilafah boleh lah dianggap berdosa. Naratif HT yang paling utama adalah seruan mengajak umat Islam untuk kembali kepada zaman Khilafah.  Malah, HT pergi lebih jauh lagi dengan membuat deklarasi bahawa semua umat Islam kini berkewajipan untuk menegakkan sebuah Khilafah Islamiyah dan sesiapa yang tidak menyertai gerakan mereka dikira murtad. Menegakkan sebuah Khilafah Islamiyah acuan HT ini adalah merupakan naratif utama mereka dan lanjutan dari seruan untuk menegakkan sebuah Khilafah ini maka ia berkait pula dengan konsep jihad, hijrah, memerangi dan membunuh kafir harbi dan umat Islam yang telah murtad serta perlaksanaan hukum-hukum syariah dalam pemerintahan. Oleh kerana kesemua perkara ini adalah sinonim dengan umat Islam, maka ada segelintir umat Islam yang cintakan agama terkeliru dengan naratif-naratif ini.

Perkembangan Hizbut Tahrir Di Asia Tenggara


Gerakan HT muncul di Indonesia pada tahun 1980-an oleh Abdurrahman al-Baghdadi (etnik Lebanon) yang dijemput untuk memberi ceramah di sekolah agama Al-Ghazali di Bogor, Indonesia. Di era 1990-an khususnya selepas era kejatuhan pentadbiran Presiden Suharto pada 1998, idea-idea dakwah HTterus berkembang di kalangan masyarakat tempatan melalui pelbagai aktiviti dakwah yang dilakukan di pejabat, perusahaan, dan kediaman, khususnya di era Presiden B.J. Habibie. Dalam meraih sokongan ramai, pengikut-pengikut HT dikesan menggunakan sentimen tidak berpuas hati dengan pentadbiran pemimpin tempatan yang ditafsirkan tidak berkesan dalam memulihkan kehidupan masyarakat tempatan yang tertindas.  Pada 28 Mei 2000, gerakan ini telah dilancarkan secara rasmi di Stadium Tertutup Tenis, Jakarta. Antara yang hadir memberi ucapan dalam majlis tersebut adalah pengikut penting HT Malaysia iaitu Sharifuddin M. Zain. Pada ketika ini, gerakan HT Indonesia terus berkembang melalui dakwah khususnya di kampus-kampus besar di seluruh Indonesia bagi menyasarkan golongan terpelajar dan profesional.

Hizbut Tahrir Malaysia

Gerakan HT mula bertapak di Malaysia pada tahun 2001. Pada tahun 2009, pengikut mereka telah membuka “Khalifah Centre” di Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor. Penubuhan “Khalifah Centre” ini adalah bermatlamat untuk menjadikan pusat pembangunan dakwah fahaman Islam. Perjuangan HTM dikesan telah memasuki tahap kedua iaitu berinteraksi secara terbuka dengan umat Islam. Ini dapat dilihat melalui aktiviti mereka menyebar risalah “Sautan Nahdhah” di masjid-masjid seperti di Kedah dan Kuala Lumpur. Hizbut Tahrir juga telah meresap dan berkembang di IPTA dan IPTS khususnya sekitar Lembah Klang dan Johor. Sasaran mereka adalah pensyarah di pusat pengajian tinggi bagi memperluaskan pengaruh melalui dewan kuliah dan program-program yang dianjurkan.

Selain itu, pembabitan Hizbut Tahrir ini turut dilihat sedang berusaha untuk mengembangkan fahaman dan pengaruhnya di kalangan anggota tentera. Mereka melihat sokongan tentera adalah perlu dan merupakan platform terbaik untuk menjayakan pengambilalihan kuasa pemerintahan negara tanpa melalui proses pilihan raya (rampasan kuasa) sebagaimana berlaku di negara-negara Timur Tengah sebelum ini.

Pada 21 Sep 12, ketika perhatian umum tertumpu kepada perhimpunan aman anjuran Pemuda UMNO dan Pemuda PAS bagi membantah filem Innocence Of Muslims di perkarangan Masjid Kampung Baru dan Kedutaan Amerika Syarikat (AS), Hizbut Tahrir Malaysia (HTM) telah mencuri perhatian dengan mengadakan perhimpunan pada hari yang sama bagi membantah isu tersebut tetapi sasarannya bukanlah kepada AS tetapi kepada ATM di Masjid Khalid Al-Walid. Dalam perhimpunan ini, lebih kurang 300 ahli HTM yang diketuai oleh Abdul Hakim Othman  telah menyatakan bahawa tentera wajib bertindak dalam isu ini kerana ATM mempunyai kekuatan tersendiri bagi mempertahankan kemuliaan Nabi Muhammad S.A.W.

Isu-Isu Antarabangsa Melibatkan Hizbut Tahrir

Antara insiden signifikan membabitkan HT di luar negara adalah seperti berikut:

  • Pada 1974, gerakan HT yang dipimpin oleh Salih Sirriya dengan kira-kira 100 pengikut telah mengadakan protes percubaan untuk menjatuhkan kerajaan pusat Mesir. Ekoran insiden keganasan yang berlaku, Mesir telah mengharamkan pergerakan ini.
  • Pada Julai 2008, sekumpulan pengikut HT di Andijan, Uzbeskistan mengadakan protes terhadap Presiden Islam Karimov agar meletakkan jawatan. Protes besar-besaran ini telah mengakibatkan kira-kira 500 orang terkorban dan sebahagian pengikut HT yang terlibat berjaya ditahan.
  • Pada April 2011, sekumpulan pengikut HT di Lahore dan Karachi, Pakistan telah mengadakan protes anti-demokrasi Kerajaan Pakistan untuk menghentikan sokongan terhadap Amerika Syarikat.
  • Pada Oktober 2015, seorang remaja lelaki berusia 15 tahun, Farhad Khalil Mohammad Jabar, terbabit dalam serangan tembakan rambang ke atas seorang anggota polis di Parramatta, Australia. Remaja tersebut sebelum ini dikatakan pernah menghadiri ceramah HT tempatan.
  • Pada November 2015, lebih daripada 100 pengikut HTM telah mengadakan demonstrasi aman berhampiran KLCC bagi membantah kehadiran Presiden AS, Barrack Obama ke negara ini.
  • Pada Januari 2016, pihak perisikan Bangladesh mendedahkan plot serangan keganasan di 23 buah lokasi yang disyaki dirancang oleh gerakan HT Bangladesh. Bagi rancangan ini, gerakan ini turut dibantu oleh beberapa kumpulan pengganas seperti Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM) dan Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT).
  • China, Jerman, Mesir dan Russia telah mengeluarkan larangan perkembangan  gerakan HT  kerana disifatkan mempunyai elemen ekstremisme dan keganasan.

Berdasarkan kepada perkembangan semasa kegiatan HT ini, beberapa analisa dan penilaian berhubung dengan ancaman gerakan HT yang dapat dirumuskan seperti berikut:

  • HT adalah sebuah gerakan revolusi yang menitikberatkan perjuangan mengembalikan semula kehidupan Islam melalui Khilafah Islamiyah tanpa menggunakan kekerasan. Visi dan misi gerakan HT sememangnya tidak menyokong tindakan-tindakan keganasan sepertimana yang telah dipamerkan oleh Al Qaeda dan Daesh. Walaupun matlamat politiknya sama iaitu untuk menubuhkan sebuah Khilafah Islamiyah, namun ahli-ahli HT menganggap gerakan ini menggunakan pendekatan yang berbeza dalam mencapai matlamat politik.  Sebenarnya, penolakan HT terhadap tindakan keganasan dilihat untuk mengelak gerakan tersebut daripada dipantau atau diekori oleh pihak berkuasa sepertimana yang telah berlaku di Mesir, Libya, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Persamaan matlamat akhir dengan Daesh dan Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) memberi indikasi bahawa HT juga mampu memberi ancaman kepada kestabilan dan keselamatan sesebuah negara.
  • Gagasan politik HT adalah sinonim dengan gagasan politik Daesh. Apa yang membezakan mereka adalah manhaj atau kaedah untuk menegakkan sebuah Khilafah Islamiyah tersebut. Daesh memilih jalan jihad sedangkan HT memilih jalan dakwah. Namun begitu, manhaj atau kaedah HT ini agak kabur kerana tidak jelas bagaimana mereka boleh mencapai matlamat perjuangan dalam waktu yang terdekat. Justeru, amat dikhuatiri sekiranya ada pengikut mereka yang tidak sabar untuk melihat sebuah Khilafah Islamiyah tertegak akan memilih jalan kekerasan atau radikalisme. Lebih buruk lagi mungkin ada yang akan menyertai kumpulan Daesh kerana mereka melihat bahawa sudah ada kumpulan yang sedang memperjuangkan penegakkan sebuah Khilafah Islamiyah. Justeru, pengikut HT juga berpotensi besar untuk menjadi pengikut atau sekurang-kurangnya menjadi penyokong atau symphatiser Daesh.
  • HT kini berada di Fasa II dan sedang menuju ke Fasa III iaitu mengambil alih kuasa atau pemerintahan. Bagi mengekalkan momentum fasa-fasa ini, HT dijangka akan menggunakan pendekatan ‘usrah’ daripada individu atau golongan yang berpengaruh di dalam gerakannya. Pegawai-pegawai tentera, ahli politik, pegawai-pegawai kanan kerajaan dan lain-lain individu yang berpengaruh yang dikenalpasti dari Fasa I lagi akan digerakkan untuk mencapai matlamat. Kejadian seumpama ini pernah terjadi di Pakistan pada tahun 2011 di mana tiga Pegawai Kanan Tentera Pakistan termasuk seorang berpangkat Brigadier Jeneral telah ditahan oleh pihak berkuasa negara itu kerana mengutuk pegawai-pegawai tentera dan Kerajaan Pakistan yang menyokong hubungan Pakistan dengan Amerika Syarikat.
  • Selain itu, HT telah terbukti cuba mempengaruhi anggota pasukan tentera ke dalam modus operandinya. Gerakan ini dilaporkan pernah merancang coup d’etat di Asia Timur di sekitar 1960-an dan 1970-an dengan cara mempengaruhi pegawai-pegawai kanan tentera. Walau bagaimanapun, cubaan itu tidak berjaya. Pada masa kini, HT dipercayai mensasarkan Pakistan kerana negara itu adalah sebuah negara Islam dan mempunyai kuasa nuklear. Selain itu, Indonesia juga dijadikan sasaran berikutan populasi tinggi penduduk yang beragama Islam dan wujudnya elemen ekstremis yang memperjuangkan ‘Daulah Islamiyah’.
  • HT turut menyokong tindakan Saddam Hussein menyerang Kuwait pada tahun 1990. Sokongan adalah disebabkan tindakan Saddam yang dilihat sebagai usaha untuk menyatukan tanah Islam. Pada ketika itu, pengikut HT telah menyeru umat Islam lain untuk turut menyertai tindakan Saddam yang ditafsirkan sebagai jihad. Malah, ada di antara pengikut HT juga telah menggesa Saddam untuk melantik dirinya sebagai Khalifah. Insiden ini jelas menunjukkan bahawa pendirian HT adalah tidak konsisten dan gerakan ini dilihat sebagai opportunist kerana berniat untuk mengambil kesempatan terhadap situasi dan konflik sesebuah negara bergolak. Justeru, pegawai-pegawai tinggi tentera sememangnya akan menjadi sasaran ‘dakwah’ HT untuk menerapkan ideologi menegakkan sebuah Khilafah Islamiyah.  
  • Objektif jangka panjang HT dapat diperjelaskan berdasarkan kepada kejadian-kejadian yang dikaitkan dengan HT. Gerakan ini dilihat agak pasif dalam menonjolkan aktivitinya pada ketika ini disebabkan oleh tindakan-tindakan keganasan yang dilaksanakan oleh Daesh. Gerakan ini mungkin tidak mahu usaha mereka diganggu oleh pihak keselamatan disebabkan persamaan matlamat HT dengan Daesh. Jelasnya, modus operandi HT adalah sama berikutan mereka berpegang kepada pendekatan yang diguna pakai secara global. Ini termasuk mensasarkan pengaruh angkatan tentera dan pegawai-pegawai kanan sesebuah kerajaan. Sekiranya mereka berjaya melangkah ke Fasa III, maka tindakan keganasan atau menjatuhkan kerajaan melalui ketenteraan yang sedia ada akan dilakukan bagi menubuhkan sebuah Khilafah.
  • Gerakan HT berpotensi menjadi lebih agresif dan radikal pada masa akan datang sekiranya  tidak berjaya mencapai matlamat politik melalui kaedah-kaedah yang sedia ada iaitu secara memprotes dan demonstrasi jalanan. Sepertimana gerakan politik radikal seperti Darul Islam di Indonesia yang telah melahirkan kumpulan Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) di Indonesia di era 80’an, gerakan HT juga berupaya mewujudkan minoriti berideologi radikal dan menggunakan kekerasan serta keganasan sebagai penyelesaian terakhir untuk mencapai objektif politik.
  • Di Malaysia pula, gerakan HT kini telah diharamkan di beberapa negeri termasuk Pahang, Johor dan Selangor. Antara punca pengharamannya adalah disebabkan oleh intipati doktrin yang disampaikan oleh pemimpin HT dilihat menyimpang dari ajaran Islam dan tafsiran sebenar Al-Quran dan Hadis. Tindakan mengharamkan gerakan ini mampu mendorong mereka melaksanakan keganasan dalam negara kerana dianggap menghalang mereka daripada mencapai Khilafah Islamiyah.
  • Penyertaan golongan belia tempatan dengan aktiviti HT adalah membimbangkan kerana tindakan ini boleh mendorong mereka bertindak lebih agresif dan ekstrem dalam menentang dasar-dasar kerajaan yang sedia ada.
  • Gerakan HT juga dikesan menyebarkan sentimen anti-Barat yang mana sekiranya situasi ini berlarutan dalam negara, ia boleh membawa kepada ancaman keselamatan rakyat asing (khususnya dari Eropah) dan kepentingan mereka. Sekali gus, keadaan ini berupaya mencemarkan imej negara dan memberi kesan buruk kepada persepsi pelabur-pelabur barat yang boleh mejejaskan aspek ekonomi negara.

Setakat ini, gerakan HT di Malaysia adalah bersifat sederhana dan terkawal disebabkan masih dalam proses mengembangkan jaringan dan keahlian. Dalam konteks luar negara, sebahagian negara telah mempertingkatkan kawalan dan pemantauan terhadap gerakan ini yang dipercayai sudahpun beroperasi menggunakan pendekatan yang lebih agresif iaitu kekerasan. Meskipun ia terkawal, namun potensi untuk ke arah tindakan keganasan adalah tidak mustahil sekiranya pengikut HT terdorong untuk menggunakan strategi ini yang dilihat mampu menarik tumpuan antarabangsa melalui media massa untuk tujuan propaganda.

Pada ketika ini, gerakan HT dipercayai mempunyai jumlah pengikut yang ramai dari pelbagai latar belakang. Ini termasuk penglibatan penuntut universiti, pegawai dan anggota tentera bagi mencapai objektif jangka panjang HT. Gerakan ini juga dipercayai mempunyai strategi tersendiri dari aspek pengurusan kewangan dan penyebaran ideologi yang dilihat penting untuk kelangsungan masa depan. Justeru, sebarang tindakan drastik oleh pihak kerajaan tanpa meneliti sepenuhnya ancaman jangka panjang mampu mengundang permasalahan yang lebih serius. Tindakan menghapuskan HT dan ancamannya harus dilakukan secara berperingkat. Setiap kementerian harus bertanggungjawab dalam mengenalpasti kakitangan mereka yang terlibat dan melibatkan mereka dengan program kesedaran. Selain itu, aktiviti penyebaran ideologi juga perlu disekat dengan lebih komprehensif. 

Dengan memahami objektif jangka panjang gerakan HT ini, usaha mereka untuk menggulingkan kerajaan dengan menggunakan kuasa tentera dipercayai akan dapat dihalang. Dari aspek perundangan pula, gerakan ini perlu dikaitkan dengan mana-mana undang-undang pencegahan supaya penglibatan individu atau golongan yang berpengaruh dapat dihalang bagi tujuan pencegahan.

News Roundup, Week of 5 November, 2020


This week had a particularly violent start, with what appeared to be a coordinated terrorist attack in Vienna, Austria as the city was about to enter COVID-19 lockdown on Monday, 2 November, 2020 . Early reports suggested that the shooting occurred in six different locations across the city centre. The shooting began at 2000 hrs local time close to the Seitenstettengasse Temple, which is the city’s main synagogue. Four people were killed and 23 others were wounded during the attack. The gunman was shot dead by police. Since then, the authorities have determined that the gunman was acting alone. He was later identified as 20-year-old Kujtim Fejzulai, who had both Austrian and Macedonian citizenship. He was previously convicted and jailed for attempting to travel to Syria to join ISIS. He was released early on parole last December.


Earlier on the same day, Kabul University was stormed by gunmen. At least 22 were killed and 22 others were injured during the siege which lasted for several hours. Most of those killed were students of the university. The attack started when government officials were arriving for the opening of an Iranian book fair organised on campus, which was attended by several dignitaries at the time of the shooting. The Islamic State of Khorasan Province (ISKP) has since claimed the attack which rocked the Afghanistan capital.


On 3rd November, the Philippine military successfully intercepted the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) in the midst of their plannings to carry out kidnapping activities in mainland Mindanao. Seven suspected members of ASG were killed following the encounter at sea. Hatib Hadjan Sawadjaan, one of ASG’s top leaders and the designated Daesh emir in Mindanao, was one of the confirmed deaths during the clash. Three other deaths were identified as Mannul Sawadjaan, Mujapar Sawadjaan, and Madsmar Sawadjaan. Mannul and Mujapar were cousins of ASG bomb expert Mundi Sawadjaan, who is believed to have masterminded last August’s twin-suicide bombing in Jolo, while Madsmar was Mundi’s brother. The Jolo attack saw 14 dead and 75 wounded.